On February 1, 1861, Texans voted 46,153 to 14,747 to secede from the Union. During March 1861, when Governor Sam Houston refused to take the oath of loyalty to the Confederacy, he was deposed and replaced by Lieutenant Governor Edward Clark in the governorship until November 7, 1861. The newly elected president, Abraham Lincoln, offered to send troops to assist Houston if he would resist but Houston rejected the offer rather than bring civil conflict to the state. Texas was among the first seven states to secede from the Union prior to the attack on Ft. Sumter and it was also the site of the last battle of the Civil War. On May 12 and 13, 1865, Union and Confederate forces fought at Palmito Ranch near the Rio Grande River. The final battle of the War ended in a Confederate victory. The Civil War was officially declared over on August 20, 1866 with President Andrew Johnson's Proclamation which declared "that the insurrection which heretofore existed in the State of Texas is at an end, and is to be henceforth so regarded in that State as in the other States before named, in which the said insurrection was proclaimed to be at an end, by the aforesaid proclamation of the 2nd of April, 1866."
During the Civil War the state of Texas used both Confederate States of America issued notes and state issued Treasury Warrants as it's form of currency. There were 11 different acts of the state legislature between February 8, 1861 and December 16, 1863, which authorized the issuance of Texas treasury warrants for military service and 11 different acts between April 8, 1861 and November 15, 1864 which authorized the treasury warrants for civil service. It is not uncommon to find a Civil Service treasury warrant that was used for military service purposes by crossing out the word "Civil" on the note and writing in the word "Military." It is less common to find the same usage of Military Service treasury warrants for civil service purposes. Some notes will have the eight percent interest rate changed with written red ink to six. Many of the Texas issued Treasury Warrants were printed on the front with a plain reverse while a couple of the issues had an ornate printed reverse.